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WEDNESDAY EDITION: Thursday at HRO for 3928 lunch bunch, Joe - K1JEK guest speaker will be discussing strategies for earning the coveted yet elusive membership number for the "3919 Friendly Bunch", the fasting growing nightly bullshit show on the ham radio bands....I think I will avoid stopping in South Carolina this year on the way to Florida...Niagara Falls is frozen....CBS blunts effort to buy medical marijuana ad for Super Bowl, company says....I asked my Amazon Echo who would win the Super Bowl yesterday and Alexa responded that Brady will have another ring....Amazing what $5 will buy in Jacksonville, FL.....Everything you needed to know about winter wildlife survival.....

FCC Reactivating Equipment Authorization System but still can't enforce ham band behavior...

The FCC says it will reactivate its Equipment Authorization System (EAS), which had been unavailable since the FCC ran out of funds on January 3 because of the partial government shutdown that began a month ago. RF devices, including most Amateur Radio equipment, must be properly authorized before being marketed or imported into the US. The FCC Office of Engineering and Technology (OET) administers the equipment authorization program.

“After reviewing our statutory authority, the status of contract obligations, and our lapse in funding plan, we will be reactivating this system today,” the FCC said in a January 18 public notice. “Most radio transmitters are required to be certificated to ensure compliance with the Commission’s technical rules.”

Certification applications are reviewed and granted by private-sector Telecommunications Certification Bodies (TCBs), which must enter the application and grant of equipment certification into the EAS before the grant becomes effective.

“The reactivation of the EAS will enable the TCBs to grant equipment certifications, thereby allowing that equipment to be imported and marketed in the United States,” the FCC said. “While the EAS will be available to the public, no support will be provided by Commission staff.”

There are some exceptions. TCBs are required to consult with FCC staff before granting certification for certain products under a procedure called Pre-Approval Guidance (PAG). “This procedure generally involves products where the required tests are complex or break new ground,” the FCC said. “TCBs will continue to be unable to grant equipment certification for products subject to the pre-approval guidance procedure until the FCC resumes normal operations and staff is available for consultation.”

PDX Bulletin Mailing List is Victim of Hamnet.org Server Hack

The Ohio/Penn DX (OPDX) Bulletin mailing list is reported to be “in limbo” after a January 11 hack of the Hamnet.org server. OPDX Bulletin Editor Tedd Mirgliotta, KB8NW, reports that the server, which he’d used since the late 1980s, was “hacked and wiped” on January 11. The OPDX Bulletin mailing list was among the casualties. “The OPDX mailing list is now in limbo, and I was told that the server Hamnet.org is probably is gone for good,” Mirgliotta said in the bulletin’s January 14 edition. He said the OPDX Bulletin, including an archive of back issues, remains available on the OPDX website.

“I know this is going to be a big disappointment for the subscribers, as well as it has been for me, but after almost 29 years, I am considering possibly retir[ing] from writing the bulletin,” Mirgliotta said.

Mirgliotta said the OPDX Bulletin would not be delivered by email for the time being. Contact Mirgliotta via his new email address. 

Meteoroid hits the Moon during lunar eclipse

On Jan. 21st, a meteoroid slammed into the Moon. We know this because many amateur astronomers witnessed the explosion.

The fireball was visible against the shadowy backdrop of a total lunar eclipse. 

Visit today's edition of Spaceweather.com for images, video, and the full story.

Ham radio in the Golden Globe Race

A sailing news article suggests some sailors in the Golden Globe Race have been operating in the amateur radio bands using made-up callsigns

For some reason the article references an entirely unrelated instance that occurred in 2015 when the UK regulator Ofcom revoked a small test batch of just over 500 licences where the holder had not been in contact with Ofcom either directly or by logging on to the website for over 8 years. As a result Ofcom discovered just how much the lengthy revocation procedure cost. They have not repeated the exercise

ead the article at

Golden Globe Race 2018-19

Ali active from Mogadishu

Ali, EP3CQ, who works for United Nations in African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM), in Mogadishu, will once again be active as 6O1OO between January 21st and February 6th.

Activity will be limited to his spare time on 40/30/20/17/15/10 meters using SSB and FT8. He suggested last time everyday between 1800-2000 East Africa Time (EAT) and on the weekend (Friday and Saturday) between 1400-1800.

Equipment is a Yaesu 857D into ATAS 120A, Tarheel Little II (currently active), and Sandpiper MV-10.

QSL direct to: Ali Solhjoo, Via Siacci 12, Rome, 00197, Italy.
QSL cards will be replied on quarterly basis. IRC not accepted.
Flash news will be posted via Twitter: @ep3cq

TUESDAY EDITION: 8 degrees here on Cape Ann, warming up to 29 today, a heat wave.....Why the hell are we still launching space cubes in orbit, I have never heard one or knew of anyone even listening for them...Looks like Koe-K1JEK and gang will be meeting this Thursday at the Salem, NH HRO store followed by lunch at the Chinese restaurant next door. Joe will be discussing the effects of UV radiation on his Cobra Antenna products and how you can minimize feedline loss and improve dx performance.....Randy Hall K7AGE is one of the many radio amateurs attending this year's Quartzfest in Arizona, January 20-26 ...Video on ham elmering.....What the hell is in the drinking water in Florida?....

Cloning knobs for vintage test equipment

Knobs! Shiny candy-colored knobs! The last stand of skeuomorphism is smart light switches! Everyone loves knobs, but when you’re dealing with vintage equipment with a missing knob, the odds of replacing it are slim to none.

That’s what happened to [Wesley Treat] when he picked up a vintage Philco tube tester. The tester looked great, but a single knob for a rotary switch was missing. What to do? Clone some knobs! You only need some resin and a little bit of silicone.

The process of copying little bits of plastic or bakelite is fairly standard and well-tread territory. Go to Michaels or Hobby Lobby, grab some silicone and resin, make a box, put your parts down, cover them in silicone, remove the parts, then put resin in.

For simple parts, and parts with flat bottoms like knobs, this works great. However, there’s something weird about the knob on this old Philco tube tester. Firstly, it doesn’t fit a standard 1/4 inch shaft — it’s a bit bigger. There’s also no set screw. Instead, this knob has a stamped spring aligning it with the flat part of the D-shaft in this rotary switch. This means a copy of this knob wouldn’t be useful to anyone else, and that no other knob would work with this tube tester.

However, a bit of clever engineering would make a copy of this knob fit the existing switch. Once the resin was cured, [Wesley] drilled out the hole, then sanded a dowel down to fit into the flat of the D-shaft. It took a little kergiggering, but the knob eventually fit onto one of the rotary switches. Not bad for a few bucks in silicone and resin.

You can check out the entire build process below.

China to Launch Two Amateur Radio Satellites in April...more space junk..

Two new Chinese satellites with Amateur Radio payloads are planned for an April 5 launch, CAMSAT has reported.

CAS-7A will carry H/T (21/29 MHz) and H/U (21/435 MHz) mode linear transponders, V/U linear and V/U FM transponders, a UHF CW telemetry beacon, UHF AX.25 4.8k/9.6k baud GMSK telemetry, and 3-centimeter AX.25 1 Mbps GMSK image data transmission for an onboard camera.

CAS-7B is described as a 500-millimeter sphere spacecraft weighing 3 kilograms. It will carry a V/U transponder and a UHF CW telemetry beacon. — Thanks to AMSAT News Service 

Reports of Knacksat CubeSat Reception Requested

The Knacksat 1U CubeSat launched on December 3 by a SpaceX vehicle may be in safe mode. The Knacksat project team at King Mongkut’s University of Technology-North Bangkok, Thailand, has speculated that launch delays may have led to battery depletion, preventing normal antenna deployment. Safe mode will let the spacecraft recharge its battery and receive commands from the ground.

The Knacksat team is seeking CW beacon reception reports on 435.635 MHz, and at least a couple have been posted, but the very weak signal prevented the decoding of telemetry. Anyone who copies the satellite is asked to email or submit an online report. The Knacksat project said reliable reception would require an antenna with Earth-Moon-Earth capability.

“The need is also for a station so equipped to try to send an MP3 sound file to change the uplink VHF frequency,” the team said. “This will wake up the satellite from safe mode.” Thanks to AMSAT News Service via Satellite Project Manager Tanan Rangseeprom, HS1JAN

AMPHF - Ameritron AL-572 *AS NEW* .....an honest seller if you are looking for a mint amp...
Amplifier is AS NEW, was never exposed to smoke and was purchased by me in 2018 from HRO in Salem, NH. I paid $1895. This amp has been used sparingly on 75 meters but has been tested on all bands and is 100% is all respects...FULL OUTPUT. If you are seeking a close to legal limit HF amp, don't buy NEW … buy mine for $1550 SHIPPED and INSURED CONUS. Will be shipped in dual Ameritron shipping boxes with the manual and all else that came with it new. You will not be disappointed with this amplifier. Bank Check, Postal Money Order or Personal Check all okayfor payment Amplifier will be shipped FedEx Ground within 24 hrs. of funds clearing my bank. Thanks for reading!
Listing #1419349 by W1OOB
Last Edited on 01/12/19
Submitted on 01/10/19
Submitted from cpe-76-179-26-27.maine.res.rr.com
Click Here to Email

STUPID COLD MONDAY EDITION: Exciting playoff games yesterday, nail biters again..Brady threw for 348 yards here Sunday, quarterbacking six scores with a patchwork offense that many left for dead at multiple times this season (after a listless loss in Detroit, after a bad effort in Pittsburgh, after a failed drug sample by Josh Gordon). The Patriots dominated the stat sheet – 524 yards to 290, 36 first downs to 18, 43 minutes, 59 seconds time of possession to 20:53, 94 plays to 47........Voice Of America Museum Sets 75th Anniversary Events ...

ICQ Podcast - Icom IC-9700 - First Impression

In this episode, Martin M1MRB is joined by Chris Howard M0TCH, Martin Rothwell M0SGL, Dan Romanchik KB6NU, Ed Durrant DD5LP and Frank Howell K4FMH to discuss the latest Amateur / Ham Radio news. Colin M6BOY rounds up the news in brief and this episode’s feature is our first impression of the ICOM IC-9700.

We would like to thank Charles Benet (AI6TT) along with our monthly and annual subscription donors for keeping the podcast advert free. To donate, please visit - http://www.icqpodcast.com/donate

News stories include:-
• Record Year for Online Amateur Radio Training Course
• D-STAR ONE Launched, Telemetry Received
• VHF/UHF Workshop Aims To Boost Activity Above 30 MHz
• New Amateur / Ham Radio General Class Question Pool Released
• Amateur Radio eBooks Available for Download
• Court Ruling - Excessive Antenna Application Fees Violated Reasonable Accommodation
• Amateur Radio Exam Success in Holland
• French Amateur Radio "Tax" Removed
• New Amateur Radio Technical Requirements in Bulgaria

The ICQPODCAST can be downloaded from http://www.icqpodcast.com

Run Android Peanut App on a Windows machine

Peanut is an Android voip application that allows hams talk on analogue and over the air gateways to Dstar DMR Fusion Wiresx etc using a cellphone or other Android device

When using it in analogue Peanut to Peanut the audio quality is excellent so it is ideal for older amateurs who are having trouble with hearing loss.

You can also run it on a Windows pc using an Android emulator

See the minimum requirements here

Peanut is busy with ham chats and is ideal for hams who like to have a long conversation and not 10 second qsos.
You are 59 73's best of luck in the contest qsl via the bureau etc.
Also those who cant put up 20 x 200 foot towers

It's for hams only and you need to get a code from pa7lim to get on


GRCon18: Open Source Radio Telescopes

Al Williams WD5GNR writes on Hackaday about the presentation given by John Makous at the 2018 GNU Radio Conference

Who doesn’t like to look up at the night sky? But if you are into radio, there’s a whole different way to look using radio telescopes.

John Makous spoke at the GNU Radio Conference about how he’s worked to make a radio telescope that is practical for even younger students to build and operate.

Watch the video and read the Hackaday post at

WEEKEND EDITION: Well, let it snow. I have done everything I can to prepare, so lets get it on......

Registration is Open for QRP-ARCI “Four Days in May” 2019

Registration is open for the QRP Amateur Radio Club International (QRPARCI) “Four Days in May” (FDIM), Thursday – Sunday, May 16 – 19, at the Holiday Inn, Fairborn, Ohio. The annual FDIM event for QRP enthusiasts and builders takes place in conjunction with Hamvention®.

Event sign-in begins the evening of Wednesday, May 15. Most of Thursday will be taken up with seminars, “meet the speakers” opportunities, and an open room for casual show and tell.

Most of Friday and Saturday are open to attend the Hamvention and visit the QRP-ARCI Toy Store. Friday evening activities typically include “show and tell,” vendor displays, and a homebrew contest.

Saturday evening features social activities and a banquet, while Sunday is open for Hamvention. Attendees are invited to display their QRP-related projects at FDIM. One evening will feature vendors offering QRP-related products, with some offering FDIM discounts. Dress is casual for all events.

Reservations and group room rates for FDIM will be available after January 1 through the QRP-ARCI website. For more information, contact FDIM 2019 Chair Norm Schklar, WA4ZXV. 

Amateur Radio Newsline Report....rehash of last weeks news...


NEIL/ANCHOR: We begin this week with news of the death of a courageous war veteran who was among those to use their talents to thwart the enemy through code during World War II. Alfred K. Newman was one of the hundreds of Navajos who served in the United States Marines Corps, baffling the Japanese by using a code based on the Navajo language. He died on January 13th in a Bloomfield, New Mexico, nursing home at 94. In the Marines, he had served on Guam, Iwo Jima, New Caledonia and elsewhere during his time with the 1st Battalion, 21st Marine Regiment and 3rd Marine Division. He is remembered among the hundreds of Navajos who rushed to enlist in the U.S. military following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. By some estimates, there are now fewer than 10 surviving Code Talkers. Thank you for your service, Private First Class Newman.


NEIL/ANCHOR: Ham radio's do-it-yourself spirit and scientific spirit are accompanied by a giving spirit. It's just that spirit that moved one club in northern New York State to be providing - instead of asking - for a donation. Here's the story from Heather Embee KB3TZD.

HEATHER: The James Prendergast Library in Jamestown New York owes its very existence to a 19th century gift from Alexander and Mary Prendergast in memory of their son who was 31 at the time of his death in 1879. It was considered a treasured gift by the family to the city Alexander Prendergast founded. The library opened in 1891, replete with an art gallery, in a building that has long since become a local landmark. With the library's very existence now imperiled by a struggling city budget, it finds itself instead as the recipient of gifts -- and the Chautauqua (CHA-TOCK-WA) Amateur Radio Service recently became one of its benefactors. The club holds its monthly meetings at the library so it was only natural for the members to make a donation. Earlier this month the club presented library director Tina Scott with a check for $400 as a show of support for the library's hoped-for continued presence in the city.


NEIL/ANCHOR: You may recognize some of the familiar faces making their way on screen in an upcoming horror film this year. They're not actors: They're rigs. Skeeter Nash N5ASH explains.

SKEETER: Amateur radio may not necessarily get top billing in every movie by Peter Vekinis (Vuh-KINNIS) but it certainly finds its way into the supporting cast. Peter, whose call signs are KH6VP and LX1QF, is executive producer of the psychological horror film "Infernum" which will be released sometime this year. Hams in the audience will be pleased to see scenes featuring the Icom D5100 mobile radio and the Icom D51 HT, especially as the heroine, a young sculptor named Camille, makes use of radio to call for help. Peter said Icom donated the rigs -- but they're not the only amateur links in the thriller. Sculptures used in the film are the creations of Bobbie Habermann NH6RH, who also has a small on-screen role. Peter told Newsline that his previous movie, "The Dark Hand," is even more infused with amateur elements. In this dark thriller, HTs and HF radios figure prominently as a brother searching for his long-lost sibling discovers a conspiracy of people involved in depleting the earth of its oxygen. They use - what else? - amateur radio to communicate. Peter's amateur radio creations, by the way, include his two children: Naomi Malik, his daughter, who lives in the UK and holds the call signs VE3NEN and LX3NEN. His son Justin, who is in Tokyo, holds the call signs VE3VEK and LX3VEK.

"Infernum," which was shot in Nevada, is due for release sometime this year.


NEIL/ANCHOR: Scientists and observers of space weather are gearing up for a gathering in Ohio in March that promises to be a weekend of ionospheric inquiry, as we hear from Jack Parker W8ISH.

JACK: Two months before the big Hamvention gathering in Dayton, Ohio, a different assembly of amateurs is taking place in Ohio -- this time in Cleveland. It's called the HamSCI 2019 Workshop Set and it's giving space weather and the ionosphere center stage. The program will take place on the 22nd and 23rd of March on the campus of Case Western Reserve University. HAMSCI's founder Nathaniel Frissell (Frizz-ZELL) W2NAF and the university's amateur radio club W8EDU are asking for presenters to submit papers for the conference, which will explore such subjects as traveling ionospheric disturbances, sporadic E, geomagnetic storms and the use of ham radio techniques to study many of these phenomena. Presentations are already scheduled by ham radio author Ward Silver N0AX and propagation specialist Carl Leutzelschwab (Loot-zull-schwab) K9LA. Amateurs who would like to join the lineup of those giving talks should send their abstracts no later than February 1st to hamsci at hamsci dot org (hamsci@hamsci.org)


NEIL/ANCHOR: Hams with an appetite for climbing and activating summits will get to sit down and indulge their appetites for a hearty meal. Plans are already underway for this global gathering, as Jeremy Boot G4NJH tells us.

JEREMY: It may seem a long time until June, but when organising an annual event where attendees often come from the other side of the world, early planning is important.

The official date for the fifth annual Summits on the Air dinner has now been set for Friday the 21st June - the first day of the HAM RADIO Friedrichshafen Hamfest in Southern Germany. As this is the fifth year of the event, the organiser, AR Newsline's own Ed Durrant DD5LP, has set a challenge to the expected 20 or more attending: they should present something related to the number 5. Their 5 best summits perhaps or their 5 most important pieces of SOTA equipment.

In any case if the last five years are anything to go by it will be an enjoyable evening out at the country restaurant, only 10 minutes away from a SOTA summit - of course!


NEIL/ANCHOR: College hams, have you done your homework? Well if you expect to score big in the North American Collegiate Championship it might just help. The Society of Midwest Contesters has announced that the SSB championship, which takes place this month, has expanded to cover the RTTY competition next month. The previous championship only included the SSB event. The SSB event runs from 1800 UTC on January 19 to 0600 UTC on January 20. The RTTY portion runs 1800 UTC on February 23 to 0600 UTC on February 24.

The collegiate championship is sponsored by the National Contest Journal. Competitors are collegiate stations anywhere in North America with on-campus shacks and a maximum power of 100 watts -- and it's certainly more fun than midterm exams or a term paper. The Society of Midwest Contestors said in its announcement that stations need to register before receiving instructions on how to set themselves up with logging software and other things needed for the activity.

Awards will be given for National Champion, Runner-up and State Champion. For some students with big ambitions, this might just be an all-nighter.


NEIL/ANCHOR: A well-known ham radio family in Florida is reaching out to the amateur radio community for help. Don Wilbanks AE5DW has the details.

DON: If you have ever received a QSL card from Faith Hannah AE4FH, Grace KM4TXT, Hope KM4IPF or Zechariah WX4TVJ, odds are you know - or know *of* - the Lea family of Florida. The four youngsters are the children of Michelle N8ZQZ and freelance cinematographer and James Lea WX4TV. This amateur radio family of six has shared a lot - including recent high-profile special operations as WK1DS and N4T - but what they face together now is a frightening challenge to survive and avoid eviction from their home. James was injured last year while assisting with volunteer emergency communications in Florida after Hurricane Michael and his condition left him unable to work. You may know the Lea family personally or perhaps you are acquainted with them through social media and their YouTube channel, Ham Radio dot World (hamradio.world). James said his recovery from rotator cuff surgery could take as long as a year and he is the family's sole supporter. Meanwhile, the bills are adding up. He wrote on the family's GofundMe page [quote] "In the short term we need help getting caught up with our rent and other bills such as electricity, water and insurance as well as building a financial cushion. In the medium term we may need some ongoing help as we figure out how to provide for ourselves in new and creative ways."

James has asked the amateur radio community to share his family's needs by word of mouth, social media and on Facebook. He writes: "Most importantly, we need your prayers."


NEIL/ANCHOR: Listen up! Another amateur radio space station contact is about to happen - this time with Canada. Robert Broomhead VK3DN has the details.

ROBERT: This week, Tony Hutchison VK5ZAI will be doing a Telebridge linkup between the International Space Station and Ashbury College in Ottawa, Canada. This will take place on Wednesday the 23rd of January 2019 at 19:47 UTC. The down link can be heard over the southern part of Australia on 145.800 MHz. You are all invited to listen in.


NEIL/ANCHOR: What does it take to be the RAC Amateur of the Year in Canada? Geri Goodrich KF5KRN tells us about the latest winner.

GERI: The board of directors of Radio Amateurs of Canada has chosen Gabor Horvath VE7JH as the RAC Amateur of the Year. The president of the RAC, Glenn MacDonell VE3XRA noted in The Canadian Amateur magazine that Gabor's many contributions to ham radio include his volunteer initiative in helping with the RAC Canada 150 Award marking the nation's sesquicentennial in 2017. That nationwide event resulted in an estimated 60,000 QSOs. Gabor's skills as an amateur have also received previous recognition: in 2017 he was the only Canadian competing in the 14th IARU High Speed Telegraphy World Championship and he was also a competitor last year at the World Radiosport Team Championship, where he was only 1 of four Canadians. According to his bio on QRZ.com, he has been a ham since his childhood in Hungary, where his first call sign was HA2KMR.

Gabor's inclusion on the list of those named RAC Amateur of the Year makes him one of only 6 hams in Canada to have been given this award since 2010.


In this week's world of DX, listen for Willy, KB8YRX operating as 8P9CA from Barbados until the 4th of February. Find him on 20 meters operating FT8. QSL via LoTW or via his home call.

Be listening for Saty, JE1JKL using the call sign 9M6NA in East Malaysia from the 24th of January through to the 28th, mostly on 160 metres. Saty will also participate in the CQ WW CW 160-Meter Contest. QSL via LoTW and Club Log's OQRS.

Harald, DF2WO is on the air as 9X2AW from Rwanda until the 14th of February operating on 160 to 30 meters including 60 meters. He will be using FT8 and CW. QSL via M0OXO's OQRS.

Mat, DL4MM will be active again as P4/DL4MM from Aruba from the 22nd of January through the 30th, operating CW, SSB and FT8. He will concentrate on the low bands, giving special focus on contacts with Europe and Asia. He will participate in the CQ WW 160-Meter CW Contest as P40AA. Send QSLs via Club Log's OQRS or via DL4MM - and in six months, by LoTW.

We also want to share an update from Ancletus Ernest J69Z, whose special event station J69Z/K3LP paid tribute over the course of seven days to his friend Silent Key David Collingham K3LP. Ancletus told Newsline that he was pleased to work 464 stations during the activation, starting with his first contact Gene Benoit (buh-NOYT) W2PBY. He said he has QSL cards designed and will send them once he has sufficient money to get them printed and has been hoping for a sponsor.


NEIL/ANCHOR: Finally, we all know amateur radio can run in the family. But for this one family in India, amateur radio seems to run and run and run and - well, you get the idea. John Williams VK4JJW has their story.

JOHN: When does a family get-together start to seem more like a hamfest than a gathering of relatives? If you're related to S. Suri VU2MY and D. Bharati VU2RBI, as either a cousin, a sibling or a son or daughter, you probably know the answer: That family is YOUR family. According to Lakshmi Narayan VU3WDJ, secretary of the Indian Railway Amateur Radio League, this generously sized entourage has no fewer than 43 licensed amateurs among its ranks. That's right: This is one family tree that has all kinds of antennas strung up in the branches. S. Suri is the founder, chairman and CEO of the National Institute of Amateur Radio in India and D. Bharati is a DXer, DXpeditioner and founding member of the National Institute. Lakshmi told Newsline that he met up with this gathering of familial radio operators quite unexpectedly at a recent ham gathering in India and after doing a little research arrived at the conclusion that they may constitute the largest ham family in India. He now hopes to get them included in the Guinness Book of World Records - and said that when he told the family he was hoping to achieve that, they were overjoyed. Perhaps this may one day lead to a new award to add to Worked All Counties, Worked All States and Worked All Continents. Think of it as "Worked All Family Members."

FRIDAY EDITION: Snow, sleet, and ice predicted...generator ready, plow on, snow blower pointing in the right direction, shovel waxed: let it rip Saturday night into Sunday...  Big game on Sunday, the Patriots are going to have to play perfect football to win with a clever coaching plan, lets see what coach comes up with....

Earth's shifting magnetic poles are affecting your phone

Earth's magnetic field is changing so quickly that researchers have been forced to update to the World Magnetic Model ahead of schedule.

Developed by NOAA and the British Geological Survey, the model is widely used for precision navigation of devices ranging from nuclear submarines to the common smartphone. Your own phone may be affected.

Find out how on today's edition of Spaceweather.com


Foundations of Amateur Radio #189

The reported death of Amateur Radio due to FT8 is an exaggeration

In 2017 a new digital amateur mode called FT8 joined the ranks of inventions related to our hobby. Since then it's taken the amateur world by storm, filled the bands with contacts and attracted a strong following among radio amateurs across the planet. Making contacts with low solar cycle numbers has never been so easy.

Together with that following comes a growing chorus of those who decry this addition, the filling of our air with useless noise and it's too easy, not real radio, there's no conversation, who cares about contacts, I want to rag-chew, anyone can do this and it's not right. Clearly some think of FT8 as the end of amateur radio as we know it.

Recently I came across a list of other technologies that made amateur radio too easy and would cause the end of our hobby.

Amplitude Modulation or AM, Semi-automatic CW Keys or Bugs, Vacuum Tubes, Single Sideband or SSB, Radio Teletype or RTTY, Repeaters, Electronic CW Keyers, Transistors, Electronic digital programmable computers, Antenna Rotators, Integrated Circuits, Digital Signal Processing, Microprocessors, the Internet, CW Decoding Software, Automatic Link Establishment or ALE, Packet Radio, DX Clusters, Pactor and PSK.

Of course some of those make current amateurs just shake their head, or laugh out loud. Who could imagine that AM or SSB would cause the end of the hobby, given that they replaced spark-gap transmitters, which incidentally became prohibited in 1934.

As we invent new things - the ARRL referred to FT8 as the Latest Bright Shiny Object in Amateur Radio Digital World - we learn more, have more, do more and expect more. In 1675 Isaac Newton said: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.

Every invention builds on the ones that came before it and apart from the banning of the spark-gap transmitter, each of these newfangled baubles has made it into the mainstream of our community, to the point of being ubiquitous. Can you imagine an amateur radio without AM or SSB today?

Using Clublog aggregate data as the source, with almost 30 years of records, in 2002, CW became more popular than Phone for logging contacts. This is on the back of Phone contacts reducing overall as a percentage of logs, against the increase of RTTY, PSK and other modes.

In 2017 FT8 joined the fray and both Phone and CW logged contacts reduced markedly. Interestingly RTTY continues to be used though not at the levels seen at its prime between 2005 and 2010 or so.

As an overall percentage of contacts, FT8 is by far the most popular. 2018 showed that over 40% of logged contacts were on FT8, CW remains essentially stable at 30% and Phone contacts account for 20% of overall contacts logged on Clublog.

What this shows is that amateurs go where the contacts are. When CW worked better than Phone, it became the prominent mode. While CW use stayed the same, and Phone reduced, it was because contacts were being made with PSK and RTTY and other modes.

This doesn't reflect the death of a hobby, far from it. It reflects the pragmatic nature of making contacts. You use a mode that's going to work.

When amplifiers and big antennas were the name of the game, those were the tools being used by our community, but these days, FT8 has levelled the playing field for all comers. In a world where noise is ubiquitous and large antenna farms are possible for a select few, FT8 is making it possible for people to get on air and make some noise.

No doubt some will decry that these are not real contacts and that exchanging a signal report isn't a real contact. Of course it is. It's just a different contact. Just like a CW contact isn't the same as an SSB contact and glorious AM isn't the same as FM, a contact with FT8 is like any other, it's real, between two stations using radio gear.

I should point out that the logging information I looked at comes from Clublog and that in 1990 there were 2.4 Million QSO's logged. In 2018 there were 40.4 million. In the same time CQ WW increased the number of entries by almost 200%. Interestingly, CW logs outpaced SSB logs in 2003, 2006, 2008 and 2016.

On the 31st of May 1897 Mark Twain said: The report of my death was an exaggeration. I think we can safely say that Amateur Radio isn't going anywhere and FT8 isn't killing the hobby.

I'm Onno VK6FLAB

Amateur radio tax abolished in France

French national society REF has confirmed that the annual amateur radio tax (license fee) has been abolished

A Google translation of a post on the REF site reads:

ANFR press release of 04/01/2019:

The annual fee for the amateur radio license 2019 was issued in early December.

Pursuant to the Finance Act No. 2018-1317 of December 28, 2018 published in the Official Journal of December 30, 2018, we will proceed to its cancellation.

In the case where you have already paid, a refund will be sent to you by the Special Credits Department of the Treasury on presentation of an RIB, a copy of the front of the identity document and invoice number starting with CSPE.

REF in Google English

THURSDAY EDITION: My better half got out of ICU and has a private room at the hospital, she is still not ready to come home yet and further testing in progress.....so big weekend for the Patriots who are the under dogs, perfect!.....

C-9700 VHF/UHF/1200 MHz Base Station Amateur SDR Transceiver, UK launch update!

Icom UK have been fortunate to have had an engineering sample of the
IC-9700 VHF/UHF Base Station Amateur SDR Transceiver
from Icom Inc. to evaluate for a short time. So far, the company have been amazed by the fantastic sensitivity and performance of the radio.

The IC-9700 is the first VHF/UHF/1200 MHz transceiver which introduces the RF direct sampling system for the 144 and 430 MHz bands, a real-time spectrum scope and waterfall function. The RF direct sampling system has already provided high performance in Icom's IC-7610 and IC-7300 HF transceivers. In addition, the spectrum scope and waterfall function have been indispensable tools for operators to increase QSO opportunities, without missing weak signals.

The radio has many other impressive features including a built-in 1200 MHz band, 4.3 inch TFT colour touchscreen display, full duplex with Dualwatch on separate bands, Satellite mode, D-STAR DV (Digital Voice) /DD (Digital Data) modes and Terminal/Access point modes. Also, a newly designed power amplifier and cooling system provide stable and high-efficiency operation, even when continuously transmitting for a long time.

The IC-9700 is also the perfect companion to the IC-7300 HF radio. Measuring the same size, both radios provide almost identical operation. Using the IC-9700 and IC-7300 creates the ultimate, compact radio station covering the VHF, UHF, HF and 1200 MHz bands. The IC-9700 is the only VHF/UHF all mode transceiver that enables a variety of VHF/UHF operation including DX, contests, satellite/EME and D-STAR.

Summary of the IC-9700 Main Features
• RF direct sampling system (144 and 430 MHz bands)
• Triband (144, 430 and built in 1200 MHz bands) and all modes, including AM and DV/DD
• High-speed real-time spectrum scope and waterfall function
• Large 4.3-inch TFT colour touch screen display
• Full duplex with Dualwatch on separate bands
• Satellite operation friendly functions
• D-STAR DV (Digital Voice) and DD (Digital Data) modes
• Receives and demodulates two signals simultaneously in the D-STAR DV mode
• Built-in gateway function application for Terminal/Access point modes
• Newly designed power amplifier providing stable and high-efficiency operation

The IC-9700 will have its official launch at the National Radio Centre at Bletchley Park to UK Amateur radio dealers and members of the press….details of which you will be on Icom UK’s social media channels.

Icom UK  have also taken a short video giving a basic overview of the IC-9700. You can find this video by visiting their  YouTube Channel

Icom UK are hopeful to have the IC-9700 available for sale from Authorised Amateur Radio Dealers in March 2019 (subject to change) with a suggested retail price of £1799.99 inc.VAT.

There have been high expectations about this model from different parts of the Amateur radio community and based upon the performance of this engineering sample Icom UK expect a high level of demand for this product.

Stay tuned to the Icom UK website and their social media channel for further updates about this radio.

To download high resolution images of this model,  visit the
Icom UK Image Bank

WEDNESDAY EDITION: I am watching the snow predictions, should be interesting for the weekend. My better half is in ICU in hospital and hopefully on the mend, she got an ambulance ride to Beverly Hospital at 1am from the local hospital ER room. Hell of a way to celebrate her birthday. for those that know her, she is stable.....

Japanese Ham Receives License to Operate in Myanmar

Akio Taguchi, JE2QIZ/AC7XZ, reports that he has received a license from the Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) Ministry of Transportation and Communication. His call sign there will be XZ2B. Taguchi explained that Myanmar only permits Amateur Radio operation from 20 MHz to 300 MHz at a power of just 25 W, and he plans to operate a "fishing rod antenna" from his hotel.

Because license fees in Myanmar are assessed in terms of spectrum used, Taguchi said his license authorizes operation within 20 kHz of the band edge. He will operate CW only. As of January 12, he reported having contacted fewer than 30 stations, including New Zealand, Australia, China, the Philippines, and Russia. His license is valid for 150 days.

More information is on the XZ2B QRZ.com profile.

Court Rules Excessive Antenna Application Fees Violated Reasonable Accommodation

Long-pending Amateur Radio antenna litigation that ARRL helped to fund has finally borne fruit. The Supreme Court of the State of New York, Appellate Division: Second Judicial Department has ruled in the case of Myles Landstein, N2EHG, that the Town of LaGrange, New York, not only overstepped its state-granted authority by assessing excessive fees, but violated the limited federal preemption PRB-1 in the process. PRB-1 requires municipalities and states to “reasonably” accommodate Amateur Radio antennas and to apply the “minimum practicable regulation” in handling Amateur Radio antenna applications. The ruling is slated to be published as a case decision. Landstein had wanted to erect a 70-foot antenna support structure; the Town of LaGrange has a 35-foot height limit.

“This case, which goes back to 2013, was about applying PRB-1 to a situation in which a municipality attempted to thwart the installation and maintenance of ham radio antennas by imposing excessive permit application costs on the ham applicant,” said communications attorney Chris Imlay, W3KD, who is familar with the case. Imlay said the FCC has refused to clarify the cost-prohibition issue as it relates to PRB-1’s “minimum practicable regulation” and reasonable accommodation provisions of PRB-1.

“The Town incurred more than $17,000 in legal consulting fees in connection with [Landstein’s] applications, and informed the petitioner that he was required to reimburse the Town for these fees before any determination would be made with respect to the applications,” the court decision recounted. “The Town subsequently, as ‘an accommodation to the petitioner,’ reduced the amount…to…$5,874, but also required the petitioner to maintain a minimum advance continuing escrow balance of at least $1,000 to cover the Town’s future consulting costs…”

“We hold that, because the Town did not limit the consulting fees charged to the petitioner to those necessary to the decision-making function of the town’s Planning Board and Zoning Board of Appeals, the town exceeded its state-granted authority by requiring payment of the consulting fees and, moreover, violated a rule promulgated by the [FCC],” the court concluded.

Given the significant delay, Imlay said both he and Landstein had lost hope that the case would ever be resolved in Landstein’s favor — and in the favor of radio amateurs in New York, generally — much less be a case that would “create favorable precedent for Amateur Radio.”

“ARRL originally was drawn to this case, because New York is the only state that, due to a very old case decision, has held that Amateur Radio antennas are not necessarily a “normal accessory use” to residential real property,” Imlay explained. “Because the issue in the case dealt with both that issue and the issue of cost prohibitions in the permitting process relative to the cost of the antenna installation, we decided to fund the case.” Landstein lost at trial, and an appeal was filed in about 2015, for which ARRL provided memoranda of law about the cost-prohibition issue. “The antenna at issue and the support structure was to cost no more than $1,000,” Imlay said.

The court concluded that the town “may not use its land-use regulatory authority to construct ‘hoop after hoop’ for the petitioner to jump through in order to erect his radio antenna tower [and] cannot impose unreasonable expenses so as to create an insurmountable financial barrier to the pursuit of the project. In this context, not only must the consultant fees be reasonable…, but the underlying services must be necessarily related to those municipal regulatory functions which are not preempted by federal law.”

New 2019 Repeater Directory is Now Shipping

The new 2019 ARRL Repeater Directory® is now shipping. It includes “crowdsourced” listings contributed by users, repeater owners, and volunteer frequency coordinators. This means more listings that are and updated more often. With 28,000 listings, the ARRL Repeater Directory® is the most complete printed directory of on-the-air repeaters, covering repeater systems throughout the US and Canada.

Repeater systems are listed by state/province, city, and operating mode. Digital repeater systems are included: System Fusion, D-Star, DMR, NXDN, and P25 systems. It is available in one size — 6 × 9 inches — with a convenient lay-flat spiral binding.

Make it yours: The cover includes space to personalize your directory.

Pages of supplemental information include VHF/UHF and microwave band plans, and repeater operating practices. For decades, The ARRL Repeater Directory has been an invaluable source for locating repeater frequencies while traveling. New hams often use the Repeater Directory to find local activity after purchasing a new handheld radio. And, public service volunteers keep a copy nearby or in their emergency “go kit.”

TUESDAY EDITION: It seems like it's January forever around here. Snow in the forecast this weekend, it would be our first snowfall on the coast, it still sucks. If you in New England, the first hamfest of the year is in Whitman, MA followed up in February by a nice one in Marlboro, MA....

US Islands Awards Program Announces 25th Anniversary Award, Recent Rule Changes

The US Islands (USI) Awards Program celebrates its 25th anniversary this year and is offering a commemorative award for both chasers and activators for contacts made between January 1 and December 31.

To qualify, chasers must confirm 25 islands during 2019, as a club or individual, and activators must qualify or activate 25 islands in any combination, making at least 15 contacts for both new island qualification and island activation. This award can be issued to multiple club members using a single call sign, or to an individual. Send a list of confirmed or activated islands to Award Chairman Jay Chamberlain, NS4J. The list should include name, call sign, address, email, USI number, island name, date worked or activated, and call sign used or worked.

The following permanent rule changes went into effect on January 1: The minimum contact count for island qualifications has been lowered from 25 to 15; the contact requirement of two DXCCs during an island qualification has been dropped, and the bands eligible for island qualifications have been expanded to include 6 meters and satellite contacts.

How different groups use communications services

Differences in how certain groups use communications services are explained in Ofcom’s latest Access and Inclusion research report, published today.

The report looks at how affordability, take-up and engagement with telecoms, TV and postal services compares across different groups.
It focuses on people whose use of different services and devices could be affected by factors such as their age, disability or income.

Our findings include:

  • The way older consumers use telephones is changing. Just under one in five over 75s now use a smartphone, and the proportion of people in this group who only use a mobile phone at home (without a landline) has increased.
  • People who are most financially vulnerable are less likely to have all of the main communications services – landline, mobile, broadband and pay TV. Those that do have a fixed broadband connection are less likely to report having a superfast connection (28%) than average (40%).
  • Disabled people are generally less likely than non-disabled people to use most services and devices. For example, 53% of disabled people have a smartphone in their household, compared with 81% of non-disabled people. While 67% of disabled people use the internet, compared to 92% of non-disabled people. 
  • Some vulnerable people have had difficulty paying for communications services in the last year. People with long-term mental illnesses (33%) and 16-24 year-olds (17%) are the most likely to struggle to pay for these services. Conversely, older people are the least likely to have struggled, with just 2% of over 75s highlighting affordability problems.
  • For most markets, at least one in five people have made a change to their service or switched provider in the last year. This rises to one in four for people who have landline, TV and broadband bought together.

Ofcom has taken a range of actions to help protect vulnerable consumers recently, including securing a £7 per month line rental cut for BT’s landline-only customers; capping call charges for directory enquiry services; and introducing rules requiring companies to identify and protect vulnerable customers. 

We also recently launched the Boost Your Broadband campaign to offer consumers advice on how to get the best broadband deal for their needs. We have also launched a review of broadband pricing, which is examining why some customers pay more than others for their services.

SPACE JUNK:UWE-4 CubeSat frequency change request approved

After two weeks in orbit, UWE-4 is in very good shape. The batteries are fully charged, the temperatures of the batteries, the outside panels and the MCU are all lying in the expected range.

It has been observed that the battery temperatures are slightly rising around 8:45 am, when the downlink of this measurement took place.

After the early orbit phase, we are looking forward to some interesting experiments with the attitude determination sensors and the propulsion system.

Unfortunately, our uplink success rate is very poor, which currently prevents these experiments. In the precursor mission UWE-3, it was found that the reason for this is very likely a substantial noise floor at the used frequency range. For this reason, we filed a request for the change of our radio frequency to 435.600 MHz with IARU, which has already been approved.

January 10, we will started the procedure to change the frequency of UWE-4. So if you want to track UWE-4, please adjust your center frequency accordingly. We already started the procedure to change the frequency on UWE-4, so during the next days it may happen that you can also still receive a signal on our old frequency. Additionally, we have been assigned NORAD ID 43880 in the meantime.

A tool in order to upload the received UWE-4 telemetry directly into our groundstation database is a work in progress and will be shared with you as soon as we have tested it thoroughly. Until then, we would be very grateful, if you'd forward your UWE-4 telemetry files to uwe4@informatik.uni-wuerzburg.de.

MONDAY EDITION: What a great game the coaching staff of the NE Patriots created and congrats to the players that executed it. Brady didn't look ready for retirement yet...Gronk, yes, moments of greatness but he is ready for the pasture. I am sure he wont be bored in retirement, he still hasn't spent any of his paychecks, he as been living off just his endorsements. He is not as big and dumb as a lot think he is....Listen to the new episode of ARRL Audio News on your iOS or Android podcast app, or online at http://www.blubrry.com/arrlaudionews/. .....

Postage going up for U.S. and Canada ...term limits folks....stop tax and spend..

The U.S. Postal Service announced new prices for 2019 and they come into effect Jan. 27, 2019.

The proposed Mailing Services price changes include:
Product   Current   Proposed
--------    --------    ----------
Letters (1 oz.) 50 cents 55 cents
Letters additional ounces 21 cents 15 cents
Letters (metered 1 oz.) 47 cents 50 cents
Outbound International Letters (1 oz.) $1.15 $1.15
Domestic Postcards 35 cents 35 cents
For more info, see:

The Canadian Postal will also go up on January 14th. The postage rate for domestic Lettermail items weighing 30 grams or less when purchased in a booklet, coil or pane would increase to $0.90 from the current rate of $0.85.
The price of a single domestic stamp would increase to $1.05 (Canadian) from the current rate of $1.00.
Letters to the U.S. will go up $0.07 or more and to other countries $0.15 or

Radio eBooks for download

There are a number of vintage radio and amateur radio related eBooks available for free download on the Gutenberg site

Among them is the 1922 edition of The Radio Amateur's Handbook by A. Frederick Collins.

Jarno de Haan @PA3DMI tweeted this link that will display the books available:

North American Collegiate Championship Expanded to NAQP RTTY

The Society of Midwest Contesters (SMC) has announced an expansion of the North American Collegiate Championship (NACC), which takes place in conjunction with the North American QSO Party (NAQP). The inaugural event last January only covered the NAQP SSB event. This year, the NACC will also cover the NAQP RTTY event. NCJ (National Contest Journal) sponsors the NAQPs. The NAQP SSB runs from 1800 UTC on January 19 to 0600 UTC on January 20, 2019. The NAQP RTTY runs 1800 UTC on February 23 to 0600 UTC on February 24. The NACC format is generally the same as those for the NAQP, but there are some differences.

“This is an opportunity for your college club station to compete with any college and university in North America,” the SMC said in announcing the 2019 running of the NACC. “You can take on your state or conference rivals. With planning and practice, it is possible to win a national championship.” NACC stations can follow the action on a real-time online scoreboard. Participants must register college/university and call sign. Once registered stations will receive instructions on how to set up, which includes inserting and activating a link in the participating stations contest logging software.

Collegiate stations will use their college club call signs, and the station must be located on the school’s physical campus. The NAQPs impose a 100 W power limit. All operators must be enrolled students and club members. The exchange for the NAQPs is name and state/province/North American country, and participants may use any name associated with the school, which must remain the same for the entire event.

The College Contest Class will be multioperator, single radio (M1). Stations may use assistance similar to the M2 class and will submit logs in the M2 class via the NAQP log submission page. NCJ will publish college stations in their own class. Awards will be based on the adjudicated logs and not the online finish. Participants may operate the entire 12 hours of the contest.

Awards will be given out for National Champion, Runner-up, and State Champions. Awards will be sponsored by SMC, NCJ, and Icom.

SolderSmoke Podcast

Episode 209 of the amateur radio podcast SolderSmoke is now available

In this edition:
An HT-37 "With Presence!"  Even on CW!  A Straight Key Night Story
Saving a much-loved HT-37 
Drake 2-B Alignment
Tweaking the Mate for the Mighty Midget
Fixing a Deaf DC Receiver
A Wobbly National HRO-ish Gear Box 
Minimum Discernible Signal Tests
Pete's Festive Holiday Transceiver in a Bottle

Movie Review:  "First Man"  Neil Armstrong goes to the moon. 

Safety Tips for 2019:  Fuses, Hard Drives, Flu Shots. 

Dave G6AJW builds Pete's Sudden Transceiver
Rogier KJ6ETL builds a new shack
Steve N8NM Helps save the HT-37
Jim AL7RV W8NSA builds Parasets
Dave AA7EE puts a beacon on the air -- Please Listen! 
Jan OM2ATC builds and documents an Si5351 VFO
Bruce KC1FSZ Homebrew's a BITX
KB1GMX's Tip on IRF-510 Oscillation Prevention
Ryan W7RLF Homebrews a DC Receiver

Listening to August K5HCT from the East and West Coasts on 40
Tim WA1HLR rebuilding his 1968 transmitter. 

Listen to:


New England Hams you might run across 75 meters.........

K1TP- Jon....Editor of As The World Turns....
W1GEK- Big Mike....Nearfest Cook, big motor home, electronics software engineer ...
AA1SB- Neil...Living large traveling the country with his girlfriend...loves CW
N1YX- Igor....peddles quality Russian keys, software engineer
K1BGH...Art.....Restores cars and radio gear, nice fella...
N1XW.....Mike-easy going, Harley riding kind of guy!
K1JEK-Joe...Easy going, can be found at most ham flea market ...Cobra Antenna builder..
KA1GJU- Kriss- Tower climbing pilot who cooks on the side at Hosstrader's...
W1GWU-Bob....one of the Hosstrader's original organizers, 75 meter regular, Tech Wizard!!!
K1PV- Roger....75 meter regular, easy going guy...
W1XER...Scott....easy going guy, loves to split cordwood and hunt...
WS1D- Warren- "Windy" - Bullnet
KB1VX- Barry- the picture says it all, he loves food!
KC1BBU- Bob....the Mud Duck from the Cape Cod Canal, making a lot of noise.
W1STS- Scott...philosopher, hat
KB1JXU- Matthew...75 meter regular...our token liberal Democrat out of VT

KA1BXB-Don....75 meter Regular......residing on the Cape of Cod, flying planes and playing radio
KMIG-Rick....75 Meter Regular....teaches the future of mankind, it's scary!
K1PEK-Steve..Founder of Davis-RF....my best friend from high school 

K9AEN-John...Easy going ham found at all the ham fests
K1BXI- John.........Dr. Linux....fine amateur radio op ....wealth of experience...
K1BQT.....Rick....very talented ham, loves his politics, has designed gear for MFJ...
W1KQ- Jim-  Retired
Air Force Controller...told quite a few pilots where to go!
N1OOL-Jeff- The 3936 master plumber and ragchewer...
K1BRS-Bruce- Computer Tech of 3936...multi talented kidney stone passing ham...
K1BGH- Arthur, Cape Cod, construction company/ice cream shop, hard working man....
W1VAK- Ed, Cape Cod, lots of experience in all areas, once was a Jacques Cousteus body guard....
KD1ZY- Warren....3910 regular with WIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIDE signal
N1YSU- Bob,  easy going, kind of like Mr. Rogers until politics are brought up then watch out...
K1BNH- Bill- Used to work for a bottled gas company-we think he has been around nitrous oxide to long .

Silent KeyVA2GJB- Graham...one of the good 14313 guys back in the day.
Silent Key K1BHV- David...PITA
Silent Key W1JSH- Mort...Air Force man
Silent Key K1MAN--Glen....PITA
Silent KeyKB1CJG-"Cobby"- Low key gent can be found on many of the 75 meter nets.........
Silent KeyWB1AAZ- Mike, Antrim, NH, auto parts truck driver-retired

Silent KeyWB1DVD- Gil....Gilly..Gilmore.....easy going, computer parts selling, New England Ham..
Silent Key W1OKQ- Jack....3936 Wheeling and Dealing......keeping the boys on there toes....
Silent Key W1TCS- Terry....75 meter regular, wealth of electronic knowledge...
Silent Key WIPNR- Mack....DXCC Master, worked them all!.. 3864 regular for many years...
Silent Key
WILIM- Hu....SK at 92... 3864 regular for many years...
Silent Key N1SIE- Dave....Loves to fly
Silent Key:
N1WBD- Big Bob- Tallest ham, at 6'10", of the 3864 group
Silent Key: W1FSK-Steve....Navy Pilot, HRO Salesman, has owned every radio ever built!
Silent Key: W4NTI-Vietnam Dan....far from easy going cw and ssb op on 14275/313
Silent Key:K1FUB-Bill- Loved ham radio....